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how do organisms reproduce

1) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individuals of the same kind are produced.

2) Reproduction is not essential for the survival of an organism, but is vital for the survival of a species.

3) Reproduction produces identical copies of the body design.

4) DNA is the informational macromolecule of our body. It provides information for protein synthesis.

5) During cellular reproduction, DNA duplication occurs followed by creation of an additional cellular apparatus.

6) The process of DNA copying is not accurate, resulting in variations arising during reproduction, which is the basis for evolution.

7) Variations may or may not be beneficial for the individual, but help in the survival of the species during adverse conditions.

8) Depending on their body design, the modes of reproduction differ in different organisms.

9) Reproduction is broadly divided into asexual and sexual reproduction.

10) Fission, fragmentation, regeneration, budding, vegetative propagation and spore formation are various modes of asexual reproduction.

11) Fission occurs in unicellular organisms like bacteria and protozoa through simple cell division. Depending on the number of individuals formed, fission may be binary or multiple fission.

12) On maturation, certain multi-cellular organisms (with simple body makeup) break up into smaller fragments, each of which develops into new individual. This reproductive method is called fragmentation.

13) Simple reproductive methods cannot occur in higher multi- cellular organisms, since they have a complex and carefully organized body structure.

14) In complex multi-cellular organism, reproduction is brought about by a single, specialized cell type that is capable of proliferating and forming all other cell types of the body.

15) Regeneration is found in many completely differentiated simple organisms, like Hydra and Planaria. If such an organism is split into several parts, most of the parts will develop into complete organisms.

16) Regeneration involves specialized totipotent cells which proliferate and differentiate to form the complete body.

17) Certain organisms like Hydra produce buds on their body surface, which mature into new individuals and separate from parent body.

18) Vegetative propagation is used by many plants, especially those incapable of producing seeds. Here, new plants are produced from roots, stems or leaves of parent plant. This reproductive method is widely used by plant breeders.

19) Spore formation is an asexual mode of reproduction found in certain multicellular organisms like Rhizopus. The thick walled spores have the capacity to develop into new individuals under suitable conditions.

20) Sexual reproduction requires both male and female sexes to produce the offspring.

21) Sexual reproduction creates large number of novel variations.

22) In comparison to the non-reproductive body cells, the germ cells contain only half the chromosome number.

23) The male gamete is smaller and motile whereas the female gamete is larger and stores food.

24) When the offspring is produced by the union of the male and female gametes, its specific chromosome number and DNA content is re-established.

25) In angiosperms, flower is the reproductive organ of the plant.

26) Stamen, the male reproductive part of flower, is made up of anther and filament. Carpel is the female reproductive part and is composed of stigma, style and ovary.

27) The pollen grain is present in the anther whereas the egg cell is enclosed in the ovary.

28) Pollination and fertilization are two essential events in reproduction of angiosperms.

29) Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma. It may be either self-pollination or cross-pollination.

30) Pollen tube carries the male gamete from stigma to the female gamete in ovary.

31) Fertilization of male and female gametes produces the zygote, which then forms the embryo.

32) Following fertilization, the ovule develops into seed whereas the ovary forms the fruit. On germination, the seed develops into a seedling.

33) In humans, reproduction occurs sexually.

34) Puberty is the time when the juvenile body of a person starts sexual maturation.

35) Before puberty, the body resources are used mainly to grow and develop the organism to its adult size. Once this is achieved, puberty sets in.

36) Some changes occurring during puberty are common to boys and girls, whereas other changes are specific to boys and girls.

37) Changes such as appearance of pimples on face, growth of thick hair in armpits and genital areas occur in both boys and girls.

38) Increase in breast size, darkening of nipples and occurrence of menstruation are puberty associated changes in girls. In boys, facial hair growth, cracking of voices and occasional enlargement of penis occur during puberty.

39) Changes associated with puberty are slow and gradual and does not occur uniformly in everyone.

40) The changes taking place during puberty, signals the occurrence of sexual maturation in an individual to other members of the same population.

41) In humans, the male reproductive system is composed of testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra and penis.

42) Testis is situated outside the abdominal cavity. It produces sperms and secretes testosterone.

43) Sperm shows a small head containing the genetic material and a long tail, which helps in motility.

44) Vas deferens and urethra are the thin tubes through which sperms are transported from testes to outside. The sperms are nourished in the seminal fluid.

45) The female reproductive system is made up of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and vagina.

46) Ovaries are responsible for production of ova/egg as well as for secreting the hormones, estrogen and progesterone.

47) On reaching puberty, ovulation occurs once a month in females, wherein one immature egg present in any one of the ovaries becomes mature and is released. This egg is carried by the fallopian tube.

48) Sperms which are introduced into the vagina of females during intercourse, may encounter the egg on reaching the fallopian tube, resulting in fertilization.

49) The zygote gets implanted in the uterus and develops into the embryo.

50) The placenta provides nourishment and oxygen to the embryo and removes the waste generated by the embryo.

51) Gestation period is nine months in humans after which the child is born due to uterine contractions.

52) In case fertilization does not occur, the released egg along with the thickened lining of the uterus is shed out through the vagina in a process called menstruation.

53) Engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse can cause pregnancy as well as spreading of sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea, syphilis and AIDS.

54) Condoms help to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

55) Unwanted pregnancies can be avoided through several contraceptive methods.

56) Mechanical barrier methods prevent sperm from reaching the egg. E.g. condom.

57) Oral contraceptive pills alter the hormonal balance, thereby preventing the egg from being released.

58) Surgical blocking of vas deferens in male or fallopian tube in female can also prevent pregnancy.

59) Abortions remove unwanted pregnancies, but this method is being misused to carry out female foeticide.

60) Birth control methods are essential to keep the human population in check and thereby improve the standard of living for everyone.

Top definitions

1) Reproduction - The biological process by which new individuals of the same parental kind are produced.

2) Variation The differences found among individuals of a group or species, caused either by genetic differences or by the effect of environment on genes.

3) Asexual reproduction Reproduction in which new generations are created from a single individual.

4) Fission A type of asexual reproduction in which the unicellular parent organism divides into two or more parts, each developing into genetically identical individuals.

5) Binary fission Fission in which the parent cell divides to form two similar daughter cells.

6) Multiple fission Fission in which the parent cell divides to produce more than two daughter cells.

7) Fragmentation The reproductive method in which certain multi- cellular organisms, on maturation, break up into smaller fragments, each of which develops into new individual.

8) Budding The reproductive method in which an organism produces an outgrowth on its body surface, which then matures and develops into a new individual.

9) Vegetative propagation The reproductive method in which new plants are produced asexually from roots, stems or leaves of the parent plant.

10) Spore - A small, usually single-celled reproductive body produced by certain fungi, bacteria, algae, and nonflowering plants, which is highly resistant to desiccation and heat and is capable of growing into a new organism.

11) Sexual reproduction - Mode of reproduction in which new individuals are produced by fusion of a male and a female gamete.

12) Pollination Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma.

13) Self-pollination Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower.

14) Cross-pollination Transfer of pollen grains from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower.

15) Fertilization Fusion of male and female gametes to form zygote, which eventually develops into an embryo.

16) Germination The process in which a seed develops into a seedling under appropriate conditions.

17) Puberty - The period during adolescence when a child's body becomes sexually mature and develops into adult form.

18) Sperm The male reproductive cell or gamete produced in the testes.

19) Ova The female reproductive cell or gamete produced in the ovary.

20) Ovulation The periodic release of an ovum from the ovary.

21) Menstruation - The monthly discharge of blood and shed mucous lining of the uterus through the vagina of non-pregnant women from puberty to menopause.

22) Contraception The prevention of conception by the use of birth control devices or pills or surgery.

Top diagrams

  ||  Electric Current  ||   Magnetic Effects of Current  ||   Sources of Energy  ||  
  ||  Chemical Reactions and Equations  ||   Acid Bases and Salts  ||   Metals and Non-metals  ||  
  ||   Life Processes  ||   Control and Co-ordination in Plants and Animals  ||     ||   Light  ||  
  ||  Human Eye and the Colourful World   ||  Carbon and its Compounds  ||   Our Envioronment  ||  
  ||   Periodic Classification of Elements  ||   How do Organisms Reproduce   ||  Heredity and Evolution  ||